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The mixing board is the main component of any radio broadcast. Learn about the equipment needed to run a radio station in this free radio station overview from an experienced radio technician.

Expert: Eric Nash
Bio: Eric Nash has volunteered with WXOJ Valley Free Radio, a Pacifica Radio Network affiliate station in Florence, Mass., working extensively with the technical and equipment aspects of broadcasting.

How does a radio station work? Here's a quick tour of a radio station from Studio to the Tower

The difference between an FM radio station and an AM radio station.

In quick simple, easy to understand terms.

Jason Younger a 17 year radio veteran gives you a tour.

http://JasonYounger.com

Hope in the end of a 5,000 year old cruel ritual Rausdorf (ots) - Millions of girls may hope: to protect by Islam before the cruel ritual of female genital mutilation. What international conference in November 2006 on the Islamic Scholar in the spiritual center of Islam, in the Azhar at Cairo, it was decided, is now in the form of GOLDEN OOK of TARGET worn in the world. 

All eleven seconds must a girl world the crime of Undergo female genital mutilation. And thus lifelong Suffering, humiliation, often death. Worldwide, 150 million women affected. TARGET, Rüdiger Nehbergs human rights organization, has found that crime. With a new, bold approach. 

Most victims live in the area of the Sahara and are thus Muslim women. That's why the human Rüdiger Nehberg, together with his wife Annette Weber, in Islam the reatest force, to stop the crime. However, in these countries are also the Girls of other religions genital mutilation delivered. TARGET has succeeded in the Azhar at Cairo conference that the international elite of Muslim faith leaders to practice in a Legal opinion (fatwa) to a crime against the highest values ​​of Declared Islam. Patron of this conference, the story wrote and will write, the Grand Mufti of Egypt, Prof. Dr. was Ali Gom'a, powerful man in the Ministry of Justice, responsible for theological law. Now appeared "THE GOLDEN BOOK" with the contents the conference. It is the message of Cairo in the mosques and so bring to the people. 

The start has been made: In the vast desert country of Mauritania (West Africa), the book is already on the way to the mosques. "The Book is given a place of honor ext to my Koran! "Mauritania Hamden Ould Tah Grand Mufti and his scholars had the book of two North German human rights activists tested, of Islam found worthy and distributed to the Imams (preachers). "A compliment of such eminent point for us was the most beautiful message of Year, "said Annette Weber financed and Rüdiger Nehberg. Is the Book and its distribution of TARGET. To reach the final destination, is also large foreign financial support is required, 

Nehberg. "We plan the GOLDEN BOOK of all mosques in the 35 To distribute mutilation countries, because we are convinced that the girl the greatest protection against life-long unimaginable suffering brings, for me the biggest civil war all time. "8000 girls are mutilated every day (UN estimate). In the worst form of genital mutilation dies every third girl directly from the consequences. also in Europe, and thus Germany, daughters of immigrants are from these countries threatened by FGM. Most take the operation in the Before school holidays in their home countries. 

From the Danakil Desert in Ethiopia is good news. there TARGET operates in semi-nomadic people of Afar a traveling Infirmary. Annette Weber: "In some areas of our work has already borne fruit the message. Our doctor has in some areas not a single girl more than four years has encountered, which was mutilated. "And Rüdiger Nehberg adds added: "This exemplary cooperation with our Islamic Partners has also still a very valuable side effect. It shows the world a different Islam than the terrorists draw. "

Ungeschminkt as never before the Nazi regime has shown his true colors in the night from 9 to 10 November 1938. 70 years ago, burned synagogues. Jewish businesses and homes were destroyed, abused the residents and brought in the days that tens of thousands of Jews in concentration camps. 

Today, still often called the propaganda term "Kristallnacht" pogroms for many historians mark the beginning of the Holocaust, the systematic annihilation of the Jewish population. In Austria, 30 Jews were killed, 7,800 arrested and immediately deported from Vienna around 4000 to Dachau concentration camp. Throughout the "German Reich" Thousands of synagogues and shops were burned, killed 91 people and arrested 20,000. 

"A crucial incision" 

Humiliation, humiliation and disenfranchisement of the Jews had at that time already a five-year history, since Adolf Hitler had come to power in January 1933 in Nazi Germany. 

"Now was reached a crucial incision," says the historian Wolfgang Benz. "From now on brute force was on the agenda to get rid of the Jews." The Jews had been shown in the most brutal manner, that they were no longer considered for law and order, adds the director of the Center for Research on Antisemitism at the Technical University Berlin. 

Behind the barbaric actions was portrayed as a "spontaneous outburst of popular anger," was state calculus: The pretext of the assassination 17 years old Herschel Grynszpan Jews served in the German Legation in Paris, Ernst vom Rath. Grynszpan wanted to draw attention to the situation of his family in Germany with his act. 

The Grynszpan, came from Russian Poland in 1911 to Hanover, were among 17,000 Polish Jews who were to be deported back to Poland in the autumn of 1938, but there were not recorded and had to settle down in no man's land in atrocious conditions at the border. Herschel Grynszpan, itself drawn from Hannover to Paris to live with relatives, learned about it through a postcard to his sister. 

With a pistol with ammunition, the young man sought on November 7th at the German Embassy in Paris. Instead the ambassador received him the Secretary of Legation. Grynszpan shot five times on the diplomat who died as a result two days later. 

A desperate and propaganda 

Without realizing it, Grynspzan had thrown the fuse into the powder keg with his desperation, as Benz emphasized. After the death of the embassy staff took the Nazi propaganda machine as an opportunity to stage an attack from the "international Jewry" in Nazi Germany, in March 1938 as to the "Ostmark" also belonged to Austria. 

With a diatribe against the Nazi leadership Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels gave the starting signal for the uninhibited attacks. With the approval of Hitler's acts of terrorism were issued as "spontaneous outburst of popular rage." 

"Bold intervention there was rarely" 

Members of SA SS us went through the cities, set synagogues on fire. And many citizens watched just as historians Benz says. "Of course there were also stunned faces, but courageous intervention only rarely." The fire department should only intervene if units were affected by "the Germans," said the statement. 

The number of people who subsequently lost their lives in the terror of night or in the days and weeks is not to determine, according to Benz. Some 1,400 Jewish synagogues and prayer houses were destroyed, to thousands of homes and businesses. 

Goebbels: "Now racing the people's anger" 

Almost triumphantly held Goebbels in his diary for testing: "Out of the whole empire now run the reports a 50, then burn 75 synagogues (...) Now hurtling popular anger (...) running can be (...)." From then on was: Germany should "be free of Jews, "says Benz. As a result, regulations, decrees and prohibitions were put in place, with which the Jews disappeared more and more from the economic and finally from public life. 

The seeds of the Holocaust 

The public humiliation the Jews should be brought to emigrate. "Because the physical destruction was not yet in the year 1938 on the program," said Benz. 

The calculus had consequences: according Benz In the aftermath of the pogroms emigrated as many Jews as in all the years since 1933 not. But even if the "final solution" to this time had not yet state program, is firmly Benz: "The path towards Holocaust was smashed." 

Tribute to the victims 

The fight against anti-Semitism and the continuing memory of the victims of the Holocaust at the center of an international round table on Monday in the Vienna Hofburg. The event is organized on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the November pogroms of the International Holocaust Task Force (ITF) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR). 

At the round table will participate alongside Terry Davis among others, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Hans Winkler (ÖVP), ODIHR Director Janez Lenarcic and. Also get the Danish director of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, Morten Kjaerum, the UN Special Adviser on Prevention of Genocide, Francis Deng, and Marcello Scarone Azzi by UNESCO. 

The International Holocaust Task Force (ITF) is understood as an umbrella organization for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are working to combat anti-Semitism. The 25 Member States around the world to support projects with funds and organize conferences. Primary Projects in Eastern Europe encouraged as the resident NGOs have less capital than, say, those in the US and Israel.

"Profile": Governor villagers told "nigger joke" Carinthian BZÖ politician surprised at press conference with racism 

Vienna (OTS) - The news magazine "profil" in its Monday emerging issue reported, demonstrated Carinthia Governor Gerhard Dörfler last Friday's peculiar sense of humor. As the AAF-politician at a Press Conference for the ORF-folk music show "Wenn die Musi spielt" in Bad Kleinkirchheim the colored singer Roberto Blanco welcomed, he gave to journalists, artists, and the cameras an unsolicited jokes for good: A "Negro Mama" and a white mother sitting in the train from Klagenfurt to Vienna and breastfeed their 

Babies. The white baby suddenly stops drinking, "points to the Negro baby and says, 'Mom, I would also like to cocoa.' "Instead resounding Laughter was in the VIP tent awkward silence wide, whereupon Villagers once again increased my foot: "I have detected 

I told the bad joke, because no one has seen him. "

Vienna (OTS) - feminists against machos 68s against 78s, countries against Vienna: Welcome to the petty-bourgeois Greens. 

Often a word is sufficient to describe a relationship sufficient. "Solidarity candidacy" is a particularly successful example. a Euphemism. Sounds nice, but did not mean it. with a such "solidarity candidacy" on a list of rear seats for the EU election he wanted the Greens bring additional voices explained Voggenhuber meek ​​- in the tradition of (rear-) cunning wolf from Grimm's fairy tales. The green guide recognized the intent and was out of tune. For the solidarity Voggenhubers should benefit primarily Voggenhuber itself, the campaign with a preferential votes would come from behind can roll up. A - as we Andreas Mölzer "Solidarity candidacy" for the FPÖ in the EU 2004 campaign know - not too difficult. Seven percent of the votes of a Suffice as a party preference votes to be pre-classified. What followed was a relatively bitter even for green ratios led power struggle. 68s against 78s. Women against men. the 

Province against the center. At the end Voggenhuber was the Extended federal board with 17 to twelve votes in the knee forced and definitively removed from the EU list. This outlet has even John the Difficult not deserve. Although he responsible for the greatest tactical blunder itself has he had on the Federal Congress in mid-January just to be lined up the rear, rather than after a lost election to square one hurt to leave the convent and his farewell to proclaim from politics, he would now be on the list. 

Later he wanted to make this mistake reversed - but it was too late. Where Voggenhuber now speculates that the intriguers in him his party definitely had then let slip - also at a possible bid for second place. 

The case Voggenhuber shows one thing clear: The Greens are a become small-minded, petty-bourgeois party, in which the Resentment is more important than the generosity in dealing with troublesome, but unconventional combatants who have proven to that they can win elections. Instead fundamentalists and realists prevail with the Greens now the normal people. Peace is the first duty of the citizen. the indeed was already under Alexander Van der Bellen so, but the Professor was nevertheless able by virtue of his natural Authority, the individual panels and self Actor halfway in To maintain balance. 

It would have been an interesting discussion, so a Preferential voting campaign. Especially in an election to the European Parliament, in the lack of interest and low turnout inherent in the system to seem to be. Voggenhuber would the voters spectrum over Lunacek also can expand. The votes for both were ultimately the same party, the Greens, has also benefited. But can it be apparently afford to reject the offer. 

Behind the case Voggenhuber but is still more: the one of Generation gap between the 68ers as Voggenhuber or Peter Pilz and 78ern as Eva Glawischnig and Ulrike Lunacek, the more of the environmental movement (Zwentendorf in 1978 and subsequently Hainburg 1984) were socialized. Secondly, the green-green Battle of the sexes. The old men of the party, so it insinuates also 

Voggenhuber, would gradually from the power-conscious women who now call the shots, marginalized. Sexism once the other way. it but is also affecting younger men, such as Federal Efgani Dönmez that recently the end of a harmless-flippant Sager Displeasure of the green ladies elite has suffered. That is precisely the emancipated Greens once mutually the "sexism" to -Vorwürfe will cut the ears, who would have thought? The irony is in the band domestic politics Annals deserves a prominent place. 

Eva Glawischnig, the new Green Party leader, has provisionally enforced: The unruly Voggenhuber was his place referred, preferred candidate Ulrike Lunacek - against their professional Suitability of course nothing speaks - on the first list position concreted. Functionary democracy instead of grassroots democracy calls this the former party leader Christoph Canons with a cynical undertone. 

So you win intraparty power struggles. Elections to win so do not.

Or: Why I do not believe that the "Alliance for Austria's Future" will ask the Governor about the March 2009 addition. 

I have been writing for over three years in primary occupation over the Carinthian State policy. Average twice a week I had it to do with the five weeks before fatally injured Governor Jörg Haider: press conferences, via his mouthpiece Stefan Petzner or by phone. I knew and know him not as good as his longtime collaborator, adversaries and journalistic opponents. But what I can say: they had obtained a fairly good insight into his political tsches everyday business off on regional headlines. His political talent sparkled particularly glaring from afar: admiration, hostile, or frightened. The national excitement was his drug. In the struggle of the plane he was panting like an old man sometimes. Behind the scenes, in the back rooms of government offices, where öffentlichkeitsarm concrete policy happens- no: will be made - it is medienungewandten his political opponents of SPÖ and ÖVP (so they could not agree) often succumbed. The dull, niggling political carpenters, who forced him to the ground of reality. Thus, a translator is of Haider Hospital Manager (Dieter Mandl, whose job it was to hit the "red" hospital operating ripe for attack) within discontinued a few months before his death. At the same time the chairman of the board of the Carinthian hospitals, Haider confidant Martin Strutz had to go. Gulliver Haider had lost a decisive battle. But the dwarves stalked each other too suspicious, were fiercely hostile to each other, to overthrow the seemingly overpowering akkordiert Governor. 

Back to person Jörg Haider: He was an exceptional politician who had the two-party political system in Austria positively legally revamped from the ground up, SPÖ Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer praised him (in spirit) posthumously. That may be true to some extent - even if the erosion of the two-party republic was also reinforced by the shows, the Greens and ultimately happened to the beat of a globalized development. The two major parties have lost with or without Haider in power. You please look over the border to Germany, where have precipitated by considerably less garish political personalities supremacy of the SPD and the CDU / CSU. 

Not to be forgotten is that the much-criticized and opposed by the blood of him grand coalition is only created in 1986 as a defensive reaction against Haider. Haider presented himself as the solution of a "problem" that he himself had created: After his coup-election to the FPÖ leader of the Socialist Federal Chancellor Franz Vranitzky blasted the ruling to date tend to be left-liberal red-blue coalition and won the Conservatives into government bed. So much for the myth. 

Is relatively uncontroversial that his political strength not ideological appeal was owed. His familial, loose roots in National Socialism proved to be equally as advantageous in certain circles as a millstone (1991 cost him the governor). Real Politically a zero-sum game: After being voted out, he learned from it and played henceforth only with ideology, groped zoom careful recoiled when it was tough. Haider was a Alpine Berlusconi, not even a George Schönerer, at best, a Karl Lueger. 

His great strength was - as I go d'accord with Michael Fleischhacker - is, in the cool and highly efficient analysis of the political architecture of the country, which he did successfully cultivated for himself. He did not care about ideological design options but purely and simply about power. His honor was odd. Haider analyzed and but not only used only realpolitik, but also the media landscape: As no one before him, he played with journalists in his early years as an opposition politician he put them exclusive stories, later especially - as governor - he produced headlines churning , It was often noted that he laughed in the nineties years almost every month by the News-cover ("one week tits, a week Haider" was then the editorial default). Later, especially the quality media were crabby and refused to mutual Odds Deal (Kleine Zeitung not printed his famous signpost-Verrückungsfotos, the butterfly imposed at all a Haider-photo ban No kidding. That was it, what then as Haider "media incitement "designated. Not the negative headlines). 

The sober-disparaging views of the Austria Siche political system inherited his orange successor. The intellectuality to use the structures for itself not. The new AAF-Governor Gerhard Dörfler feel really believes what he says. The first makes no difference because his policy is only one, just one-dimensional Haider'sche estate management in the short term. The first is frightening because it leaves no doubt as to what kind of person is a man who also goes away unmoved, that in Carinthia assassinations perpetrated in Haider's name. Ultimately, the villagers but makes a (and bad) ideologues who has to compete with the traditional parties on the good old way in the battle of ideas. And if it does not completely screw up the red-black political carpenter, he can only lose.

The independent radio stations are happy about the first broadcast of Radio B138. Since 25 October, the Free Radio B138 sends the Upper Krems Valley (district of Kirchdorf in Upper Austria) to 90.4 MHz as training radio. With Radio B138 are currently 13 free radios in Austria on consignment. 

With the new addition is also acutely the question of the future financing of independent radio stations via a redesigned media promotion. 

The independent radio stations are an important factor for media pluralism in Austria for the past 10 years. Currently, 69 commercial and non-commercial private radio stations are licensed. 13 of these are not commercial-free radio stations, 50 commercial and some denominational channels without financial gain. The quality and the innovative nature of the programs in the Free Radio was recently confirmed again by the nomination of 9 programs and program series for Radio price of adult education - from all other public and private radio stations in Austria only 6 programs nominated! 

"In the commercial licenses unfortunately acts only part of the transmitter independently. Many are part of networks and take over mantle Programs. The Free Radio, in contrast, anchored almost exclusively locally and regionally! "Relativized Helmut Peissl, Chairman of VFRÖ, so also the already pleasing statistics. 

With Radio B138 comes three years after the Free Radio Freistadt again a free radios on air. The initiative for Radio B138 goes back to a project within the framework of the Festival of the Regions, 2007. Under the slogan "New Horizons in the ether" broadcast radio B138 in summer 2007, three weeks free local radio from the Upper Austrian village church - an idea and initiative of the independent radio stations in Linz, Freistadt and Salzkammergut. As a "Free Education Radio" Radio B138 focuses beside the open access especially to working with schools and local educational institutions. 

A still open yard is currently the future of federal funding for Free radio across Austria. 

Currently ÖVP and SPÖ also negotiate on the future "media package". The "old" Federal Government had announced a promotion for non-commercial radio and TV in 2009. The free radio call on all political leaders to advocate at the federal level for the rapid establishment of a promotion of non-commercial radio.

The International Women's Day goes back to the 03/08/1908. At that time were the workers of the textile factory "Cotton" in New York on strike to demand better living and working conditions. The factory owners and supervisors joined the women in the factory to prevent the contact and solidarity with other workforces. When suddenly a fire broke out, 129 workers died in the blaze. 

Initiated by Clara Zetkin (1857-1933), the first International Women's Day was held on 19 March 1911. Millions of women in Denmark, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the USA participated. The choice of this date should emphasize the revolutionary character of the Women's Day. March 18 was the day of remembrance for the fallen soldiers in Berlin during the Revolution 1848th 

The main demands were: 

  • Struggle against war 
  • Suffrage for women 
  • Health and safety legislation 
  • sufficient Mother and Child Protection 
  • the eight-hour day 
  • equal pay for equal work 
  • Minimum Wage Fixing 

In the following years of International Women's Day was celebrated annually from February to April. The establishment of the International Women's Day on 8 March 1921. This was done should be reminded of the textile workers 'strike in St. Petersburg, which spread to other sectors and a large workers' demonstration triggered. These fights took the occasion of Women's Day on March 8, 1917. - according to the old Russian calendar on 23 February - and triggered the beginning of the "February Revolution" from. 

A sharp drop in Germany brought the Nazi ideology of the role of woman as wife and mother. During the 3rd Reich of Women was banned and was replaced by Mother's Day. 

After the second world war found in the GDR in 1946 again to celebrate Women's Day. In the socialist countries the social liberation of women was organized and celebrated the day with official celebrations for the women. In the FRG, the Women's Day was revived only in the late 60s by the new, autonomous women's movement. March 8 was an important platform of the women's movement. Issues such as the rights of foreigners, discrimination against non-heterosexual lifestyles and better securing the rights of women within the framework of the European approach to be taken.

The criticism of the Pope is growing, not only in the media. The Vatican already ask employees whether the Holy Spirit the Holy Father advises the right thing. 

The Holy Spirit ", so said Pope Benedict XVI. on Sunday in St. Peter's Square in Rome, "also speaks to us through the Church". But still many Catholics, non-Catholics and even Vatican employees wonder whether the Holy Spirit currently advises the thing: After the controversial resumption of four bishops of the ultra-conservative Society of St. Pius Catholic Church in the criticism of the Pope continues to grow. 

Deselecting? On Monday delivered news agencies already do answers to questions like "Can a Pope be voted out?" And "Can a pope resign?": Four years after his election seems prudent benevolence towards Benedict XVI. turn into massive criticism of his administration. The criticism is reinforced by the appointment of conservative priest Gerhard Maria Wagner auxiliary bishop of Linz. Wagner says of himself: "I seek a confrontation". Seek them out and the Pope? "That the Pope has always been rather conservative, is nothing new, but it had just expected that he would be something central," said a Vatican employee German diplomatic. 

There is no alternative. On the other hand, the Pope had against the four bishops of the SSPX hardly have done otherwise ". The bishops have asked the Pope for leniency and he had to do what a good shepherd must make" Two kinds of perception blazing now with: The Vatican sees the remission of the excommunication, the denial of the Holocaust by Bishop Williamson and now the appointment of Auxiliary Bishop of Linz as independent of each other - the public sees this as planned "shift to the right". 

Tug for influence. Regardless of the current situation Vatican observers actually believe that "right Italian circles" trying to expand its influence in the Curia. An example of this is the campaign for the beatification of Pope Pius XII controversial. But not only the course of the nave raises questions, even the communication on board is wrong. "There are many small circles that sit on projects and not vote," said a Vatican employee, "regardless of losses".